Introduction
In the 1970s, physical licensed media such as floppy disks and cassettes were developed. They were carriers of both the license and the software itself. The license was designed in such a way that the software carrier was also the carrier of the license that entitled us to use the software. With the carrier, we had the rights to use the programme. Thanks to game stores there was a small market for games, and their prices on the secondary market reflected their quality. This allowed the free exchange of software, but the loss was the developer who could not control or profit from the physical secondary market. In addition, physical licensed media could easily be lost or broken. If you wanted to buy a game, you had to physically go to the shop, which was an additional time commitment.
With advances in technology, digital software distribution platforms such as Steam, Epic Games and GOG have emerged. Digital distribution is primarily characterized by convenience. However, by eliminating the physical media of the software, it has stripped us of the proprietary nature of the license we purchase. The software license is permanently assigned only to the account belonging to the platform. This prevents any trading outside the platform. Furthermore, the absence of the proprietary nature of trade leads to a centralization of software distribution. Not everyone can set up online game shops, as was the case with physical retailers. The platform driving traffic can rob developers of their revenue in an instant if they do something against their will.
It is also worth mentioning the extreme variant of digital distribution that is becoming increasingly popular - the subscription model. In this solution, players pay a subscription fee to access titles on the platform. The subscription model leads to a greater centralization of software distribution than ever before, and the platform freely manages the available titles.
Blockchain Technology, on the other hand, makes it possible to transfer the laws of the physical world to the digital world. The best proof of this is Bitcoin, which was created by Satoshi Nakamoto in 2008[1]. Blockchain makes it possible to combine the advantages of both worlds by transferring the properties of physical money to its digital form, without any intermediaries. Public blockchain explorers have been created to view the contents of the blockchain. In 2013, CoinMarketCap was established to index the prices of all cryptocurrencies in one place.
However, Bitcoin's blockchain is not programmable. This means that we cannot write our own contracts or licensees on it. Vitalik Buterin combined blockchain technology with a virtual machine in 2015 to create Ethereum. It was the first blockchain to enable the creation of smart contracts. Shortly afterward, Vitalik Buterin and Fabian Vogelsteller created the ERC20 standard.
Ethereum Whitepaper | ethereum.org
ethereum.org
EIP-20: Token Standard
Ethereum Improvement Proposals
This is a standard interface that allows all tokens on Ethereum to be reused by other applications: from wallets to decentralised exchanges. However, the current transaction costs on the Ethereum network prevent the spread of software. The problem of scaling Ethereum is being solved by other networks, such as Polygon or Avalanche. Transactions on these networks are much cheaper and faster, making it possible to build a convenient game shop with network-owned licensees in the form of just ERC20.
Bring the World to Ethereum | Polygon
Avalanche: Blazingly Fast, Low Cost, & Eco-Friendly | Dapps Platform
Furthermore, the HashUp architecture is designed for easy scaling to other networks, such as Hadera or Scale.network. The final part of HashUp is DeFi (Decentralised Finance), or essentially liquidity pools, created in 2019 to provide liquidity to ERC20-compliant tokens using the Automated Market Maker (AMM) mechanism. It allows tokens to be bought and sold without requiring an order from the second party (beyond just providing liquidity). In addition, with liquidity pools you can swap both ERC20 tokens and ERC20 cartridges with one another - we call this GameSwapping. HashUp uses the Uniswap V2/V3 protocol and future versions for this.
Home | Uniswap Protocol
Uniswap Protocol
HashUp has integrated the above mechanics into a single platform, resulting in decentralized software distribution:
  • blockchain - acting as a decentralized network of license carriers
  • smart contract ERC20 - acting as a software license carrier
  • smart contracts - acting as a store of license carriers that anyone can use/add
  • Blockchain Explorer - in the form of GameXplorer.io, serving as a blockchain browser for gamers
  • DEX with AMM
  • Uniswap - acting as an engine for free market pricing of games on the secondary market
  • CoinMarketCap - in the form of GameCap.io, as a secondary market software price indexing platform
It is worth noting that HashUp carriers, despite their compatibility with the Web3 world, are not intended for exclusive distribution of Web3 software. They are designed to distribute any kind of software, including games.
Problems of Web2 Software DistributionIssues of the Web2 world and solutions in the Web3 world:
By bringing the above mechanisms together in a single platform, HashUp solves a number of problems that software distribution faces today. At the same time, it brings software distribution into the new world of Web3.
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